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В статье рассматриваются вопросы прогнозирования микроклимата городов и ветроэнергетического потенциала жилых зданий применительно к России, Северной и Восточной Европе. В исследовании проанализирована климатическая структура крупного города, биоклиматический комфорт, а также представлен климатический анализ на примере Москвы. Уточнена взаимосвязь ветрового режима с климатическими и градостроительными факторами. Представлены возможные подходы к оценке ветроэнергетического потенциала здания. Проанализирован зарубежный опыт и классификация факторов, влияющих на размещение ветроэнергетических установок. Отмечена возможность детализации данных микроклимата по ветровому режиму для размещения ветроэлектростанций с учетом благоустройства и озеленения городов. Рассмотрен вопрос первичной привязки ветроэнергетических установок в строительстве на основе ветроэнергетического потенциала зданий и территорий. Концепция "Умного города" рассматривается с целью формирования системы управления ветроэнергетическим потенциалом в городском строительстве и оценки комфортности аэрации для пешеходов с интеграцией в градостроительное энергетическое моделирование (УБЭМ).
The paper introduces the concept of energy periphery to interrogate place-based perspectives on the co-production of uneven geographical development, energy vulnerabilities and low carbon transitions. Energy periphery is defined as places that are systematically disadvantaged through the whole energy system due to their inferior position within the asymmetrical spatial distribution of material, economic, political and symbolic resources and capabilities. Within an energy periphery, energy-related factors are combined with other place-based conditions to subject their communities to a compound and circular effect of precarious energy experiences. The notion of energy periphery is underpinned by insights from the spatial justice, core-periphery and energy justice theories. Using the case of Wales, the paper demonstrates the multi-dimensional and multi-scalar character of energy peripheralization, including political underrepresentation, the absence of economic agglomeration advantages, and dependence on off-grid fuels, energy inefficient homes and other ‘backward’ technologies and practices. Social and spatial contingencies of end-use energy vulnerability factors are outlined. Contrary to common discourses, energy transition further disadvantages energy peripheries and reproduces a fragmented socio-spatial landscape. The study overall demonstrates the importance of considering energo-socio-spatial relationships to better understand uneven energy transitions and social change more generally.
The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) – one of the USA federal government’s policy tool for preserving and encouraging the development and rehabilitation of affordable rental housing. LIHTC provides an incentive for home developers to build, buy and refurbish housing for low-income taxpayers and also provides a non-refundable credit for those who invest in low-income housing projects as a means of stimulating the flow of capital into this sector. The type of housing structures typically used for this credit are multi-family dwellings.
This paper focuses on the Tsoi Wall in Moscow, an iconic place on Russia’s music map that appeared in Moscow in 1990 in memory of the cult Soviet rock musician Viktor Tsoi, to develop a framework for studying non-auratic music place—that is, places that are not connected with the biographies of musicians or musical events, but emerge directly from the experiences of visitors and fans. These places are constantly negotiated and only lightly formalized, but are nevertheless enduring. To analyze this type of place, we propose a concept of institutionalization “in becoming.” The case of the Tsoi Wall reveals that light formalization (vague and changing positions and rules, and openness to different interpretations of a place and ways of using it) leads to the recognition of the place as a significant one and to its popularity. We put institutionalization “in becoming” in a wider context and juxtapose it with well-studied musical places in Europe and the US.
This book examines how contemporary urbanism is influenced by digital and low carbon transitions. From its infancy at the scale of individual buildings, a focus on ‘green’ agenda, energy, and resource efficiency has fostered research and policies for low carbon cities, eco-cities, and increasingly intelligent and smarter urban systems. Cities around the world are getting ‘smarter’ as more advanced technology is integrated into urban planning and design. People are relying more on digital and information and communication technology (ICT) in their daily lives, while cities are adopting more digital technology to monitor and gather information about people and their environment. This leads to Big Data collection, which is used to inform governance and improve urban performance. These transformations, however, raise critical questions, including whether emerging smart sustainable cities are too technocratic, but also with regard to citizen involvement. This brief addresses these important contemporary concerns through a review of literature and existing urban strategies. It should be of interest to everyone involved in advancing sustainable cities and smart cities. It should also be a relevant read for students and researchers in this area.
The article shows the inseparable connection between the topics of the main centers of Russian regional science and the properties of the space that they are studying. The diversity of the thematic structure of research centers is derived from differences in economic geographical and geopolitical position, sectoral structure of the economy, age of economic development of the studied areas of the Russian space. However, the most important factor differentiating the Russian space is the density of economic activity, which determines the level of development of the territory. Within the Russian space, significant undeveloped territories of the North, the Arctic, Siberia, and the Far East are of particular interest, in which extensive buffer zones are distinguished between the main settlement zone and low‐density periphery. They constitute the essential specificity of the Russian space. Another feature is the presence of colossal “ownerless” spaces that are outside the influence of any nearby major center and therefore are forced to focus on the federal capital, Moscow.
This paper problematizes the uneven nature of low carbon energy transitions in the context of uneven geographical development and core/periphery asymmetries. It explores the impacts of transition for peripheral communities lacking political power and agglomerative advantages. While decentralised developments that emerge with energy transition promise to bring new opportunities to remote areas, factors of economic and political inequalities render those opportunities socially and spatially segregated. Exploring experiences of rural and exurban communities in South Wales, the paper establishes links between low carbon transition and its actually existing implications on the ground. It demonstrates that even if having an abundance of natural resource and physical space to harness low carbon energy, many rural communities are trapped in the chronic positions of energy peripheralization.
The aim of this article is to highlight the connection between academic sound research projects and urban studies and practices in perspective of the sonic aspect of place identity. The author explicates a chronological parallel between the starting point of Sound Studies as an interdisciplinary research field and the explosion of interest in sound in the field of urbanism. This connection is being called the sonic renaissance. The author considers the conceptual basis of sonic discourse in urbanism and comes to a conclusion that the term “soundscape”, the most popular in urban sound discourse, is no more relevant for serious discussion in context of urban environment. In order to avoid such mistakes in the field of place identity research, the author comes up with an alternative term, “identity of a place”. Compared to the “place identity” term, “identity of a place” opens up new opportunities for sound research in the context of local identity and prevents such investigations from fall- ing into subjectivism.
The article is the list of the books and dissertations dedicated to the history of public transit in the cities of the former USSR. Main part of these publications are keeping in the storages in the principal libraries of the former USSR. Its signatures (codes) in these libraries are indicated in the brackets. The bibliographical list is ordered in the alphabet of city’s (region’s) names, in each city (region) – in chronological order. From 766 titles Moscow takes 97, St. Petersburg – 59, Khar’kov – 47, Kiev – 40, Nizhniy Novgorod – 32, Baku – 30, Odessa – 25, Minsk – 20, Riga – 15, Tbilisi – 14, Krasnodar – 12, Kazan’ – 11, Perm’ – 10, Vitebsk – 9, Astrakhan’ – 9, Saratov – 9, Samara – 8.
Some ontological mechanisms making it possible to imagine space and movement as well as to assign them value dimension are described and explained. The phenomenon of travel as a value-loaded real or imaginary relocation in the value-anisotropic space is considered in detail.
The article presents a special modification of the EOQ formula and its application to the accounting of the cargo capacity factor for the relevant procedures for optimizing deliveries when renting storage facilities. The specified development will allow managers to take into account the following process specifics in the format of a simulated supply chain when managing inventory. First of all, it will allow considering the most important factor of cargo capacity when optimizing stocks. Moreover, this formula will make it possible to find the optimal strategy for the supply of goods if, also, it is necessary to take into account the combined effect of several factors necessary for practice, which will undoubtedly affect decision-making procedures. Here we are talking about the need for additional consideration of the following essential attributes of the simulated cash flow of the supply chain: 1) time value of money; 2) deferral of payment of the cost of the order; 3) pre-agreed allowable delays in the receipt of revenue from goods sold. Developed analysis and optimization procedures have been implemented to models of this type that are interesting and important for a business. This - inventory management systems, the format of which is related to the special concept of efficient supply. We are talking about models where the presence of the specified delays for the outgoing cash flows allows you to pay for the order and the corresponding costs of the supply chain from the corresponding revenue on the re-order interval. Accordingly, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established based on which managers will be able to identify models of the specified type. The purpose of the article is to draw the attention of managers to real opportunities to improve the efficiency of inventory management systems by taking into account these factors for a simulated supply chain.
The article presents the results of an empirical study of the urban memorial landscape of Belozyorsk (Vologda region). The author makes the assumption that drawing up a memorable landscape of the city is a complex process which various stakeholders are involved in. Providing a brief overview of the historic milestones of one of the oldest cities in Russia, the author focuses on a detailed description of three memorial initiatives: local initiatives to establish the museum of fishing and Finno-Ugric heritage, as well as external initiative to conserve the ruins of Church of the Nativity in KrokhiNo. The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews with representatives of local and external initiative groups, city government and local residents who were not involved in the memorial projects. In the conclusion of the article, the author clarifies mechanisms of individual interest in remembering genesis and its further transformation into a public memory site.
Heterotopy is space represented by different images of places; these
images of places may be incompatible or poorly compatible with each other. Geographic
imagination, taken in its phenomenological-narrative context, provides the real
geography and topography of the region. Spatiality is carried out ontologically as the
deployment of overlapping geographic images which transforming each other. The
ontology of a place is revealed by the multiplicity of its autonomous landscapes, which
become immiscible heterotopies. Heterotopies propagate themselves through evermultiplying
For Russia, with its vast territory, reliable transport links are traditionally of particular importance for maintaining territorial integrity, enhancing geopolitical influence and competitiveness in the international market. An efficient road network mostly determines the country's economic growth opportunities through the development of regions, providing conditions and opportunities for the free movement of goods and services, cargo and passengers.In 2016, the Institute of transport Economics and transport policy of the Higher School of Economics built a gravity model describing trade flows between the subjects of the Russian Federation. It showed that when the travel time between regions decreases by 1%, the volume of trade between them increases by 1.7%. However, the current state of the road infrastructure does not allow us to meet the needs of the Russian economy and the competitiveness of international cargo transportation through the territory of Russia.